- Basic Concepts
Turbine: a power machine that converts the energy of water flow into rotating mechanical energy, belongs to the turbomachinery in fluid machinery, and is used to provide motive power for generators in hydroelectric power generation.
Water Pump: A device that transports liquids or pressurizes them. It transmits the mechanical energy of the prime mover or other external energy to the liquid to increase the liquid energy, and is mainly used to transport liquids including water, oil, acid-base liquid, emulsion, suspoemulsion and liquid metal, etc. It can also transport liquid, Mixtures of gases and liquids containing suspended solids.
Hydraulic structures: various structures that work under the static or dynamic action of water and interact with water, which can control and regulate water flow and prevent water hazards, and are an important part of various water conservancy projects.
Pumped-storage power station: a hydropower station that uses the electric energy when the power load is low to pump water to the upper reservoir, and then discharges water to the lower reservoir to generate electricity during the peak period of the power load, also known as an energy-storage hydropower station.
Reminder: The principle of small hydropower station, pumped storage hydropower station and tidal energy hydropower station is to use the potential energy of natural water level drop, which is a renewable energy source. Although pumped storage power generation does not belong to the category of new energy power generation, it will be introduced later on this site as another method of water energy utilization.
- Citation: Ancient water drainage
The water drain is a hydraulic blasting device for iron smelting in ancient China. It was invented by Du Shi in 31 AD.
It is reported that during the Western Han Dynasty, when people cast agricultural tools, they used manpower or horsepower to incite the bellows to smelt, which was time-consuming and labor-intensive but with half the effort. In the early years of the Eastern Han Dynasty, the Nanyang (now Nanyang City, Henan Province) area was rich in water resources due to the Baihe River, a tributary of the Han River running through it. In addition, the climate was mild and the rainfall was relatively abundant. Du Shi, who was the prefect of Nanyang at that time, after actual inspection and repeated research, invented a tool for pulling the bellows with water power, which is the later water drain. This tool is labor-saving and effective, which is more efficient than the previous use of horsepower blasting. 3 times. Du Shi was also known as “Mother Du”.
The specific structure of the water drain created by Du Shi was not recorded at that time. Until the Yuan Dynasty, Wang Jian gave a detailed introduction to the following diagram of the water row in his “Nong Shu”: “The system is selected on the side of the turbulent current, and the uranium is erected on a wooden frame to make a two-sleeping wheel; The wheel is surrounded by cables, and the drum is spun in front of the wheel, and the side of the shovel is rotated. , too human.”
A wooden frame is set up on the bank of the turbulent river, a rotating shaft is erected on the wooden frame, a large horizontal wheel is installed at the upper and lower ends, and a blade is installed around the lower horizontal wheel (the wheel shaft of the water wheel is equipped with a blade to withstand the water flow, thereby transforming the hydraulic power. It is mechanical rotation; a drum-shaped small wheel (“rotating drum”) is installed in front of the upper horizontal wheel, and the upper horizontal wheel is connected with a “string cable” (equivalent to a conveyor belt); installed on the top of the drum-shaped small wheel A crank, a swingable connecting rod is installed on the crank, the other end of the connecting rod is connected with a “panning lug” on the horizontal shaft, and a “straight wood” is installed between the other climbing lug on the horizontal shaft and the disk fan (equivalent to a reciprocating rod). In this way, when the water flow hits the lower horizontal wheel, it will drive the upper horizontal wheel to rotate. Since the upper horizontal wheel and the drum-shaped small wheel are connected by a string cable, the upper horizontal wheel rotates once, which can make the drum rotate. The small wheel rotates for several weeks, and the rotation of the drum-shaped small wheel drives the crank at the top to rotate, which makes the connecting rod connected to it move, and the connecting rod drives the straight wood to reciprocate through the lug and the horizontal shaft, so that the exhaust fan is turned on. Once closed, blow air.
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